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Among classical symbioses, figs and their pollinating wasps constitute a highly diverse keystone resource in tropical forest and savannah environments.Historically, they were considered to exemplify extreme reciprocal partner specificity (one-to-one host-symbiont species relationships), but recent work has revealed several more complex cases.No single adaptive hypothesis is yet to explain the conditions determining the origin, maintenance, and extinction of insect-plant mutualisms [] and strongly supports the hypothesis of a historically conservative interaction.Figs and fig-pollinating wasps are obligate mutualists that have coevolved for over 60 million years.However, there is a striking lack of studies with the specific aims of assessing symbiont diversity and how this varies across the geographic range of the host.

molecular dating and biogeography of fig pollinating wasps-61molecular dating and biogeography of fig pollinating wasps-39

Some studies suggest that agaonids arose in the Late Cretaceous and the current distribution of fig-wasp faunas can be explained by the break-up of the Gondwanan landmass.

Our study offers a striking example of extreme deviation from reciprocal partner specificity over the full geographical range of a fig-wasp system.

The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity.

Wang RW, Ridley J, Dunn DW, Cook JM, Yu DW (2009) Interference competition and high temperature reduce the 'virulence' of fig wasps and contribute to the stability of a fig-wasp mutualism. Wang RW, Ridley J, Dunn DW, Cook JM, Yu DW (2009) Interference competition and high temperature reduce the 'virulence' of fig wasps and contribute to the stability of a fig-wasp mutualism.

(2008) A role for parasites in stabilising the fig-pollinator mutualism.

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